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***6분 영어 (The wonders of hair)

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등록일 2017-09-26 10:01

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이번주 자료 업데이트가 좀 늦었습니다 ^^.

다시 워킹맘이 되어서 예전보다 시간이 없네요 .

종종 자료 늦어져도 이해 부탁드려요 ^^

이번주는 중간고사 보시는 분들도 있고 많이들 바쁘실 것 같아요.

그래도 흥미로운 주제이니 한번씩 쉬어가는 페이지처럼 읽으셔도 좋을 것 같아요.

다음주는 추석연휴라서 6분 영어도 한주 쉬어갑니다.

좀 빠른감 있지만 추석 명절 즐거운 시간 보내시길 바래요.


이번주는 the wonders of hair 이야기입니다.


<스크립트 요약>


Do you know why we lost so much hair?

Isn’t it because it allowed us to sweat more easily?

This meant we didn’t get so hot and tired we could run faster and for longer and catch more animals to eat!


If you’re follically challenged it means you’re losing your hair!

Having little or no hair is called baldness.

And if you’ve reached a certain age it means you aren’t young any more!

 

Why is our hair so important to us?

When we aren’t worrying about going bald,

we’re busy shaving, waxing, plucking, and trimming the stuff.

When I say ‘we’ of course I’m referring to people in general. Not myself

   

Well, a good head of hair indicates health and youth.

And hair on your face facial hair shows when boys have reached manhood.

On the other hand, going grey or losing your hair shows you’re getting older.

 

Ralf Paus, hair loss researcher

The eyebrows get stronger usually in aging men, the hairs in your nose and in your ears get stronger and what a miracle of nature that an organ when the entire body is aging actually grows stronger. So we may even be able to learn from hair follicles how not to age.

 

The hair follicle apparently knows some tricks that the other organs don’t know. So it’s continuously regenerating itself. It goes through a so-called hair cycle and part of that we know pretty well and that is, these stem cells that it uses to regenerate cells.

 

So a hair follicle can regenerate cells or grow new cells to replace old or damaged ones.

But if that’s only true for eyebrows, nose and ear hair,

I am not that impressed! I want hairs on my head to be able to regenerate!



<참고자료>

 





Hair goes through three phases


It has an anagen phase when the hair grows;

It has a catagen phase when the hairs stops growing the hair follicle switches off, the hair falls out;

  and then it goes into a telogen phase which is it's resting phase for a little

While  and then it starts growing again back to the start.








▶  Aging changes in hair  

  

1) Hair color change.

This is one of the clearest signs of aging.

Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin, which hair follicles produce.

Follicles are structures in the skin that make and grow hair.

With aging, the follicles make less melanin, and this causes gray hair.

Graying often begins in the 30s.

 

Scalp hair often starts graying at the temples and extends to the top of the scalp. Hair color becomes lighter, eventually turning white.

 

Body and facial hair also turn gray, but most often, this happens later than scalp hair.

Hair in the armpit(axillary), chest, and pubic area may gray less or not at all.

 

Graying is largely determined by your genes.

Gray hair tends to occur earlier in white people and later in Asians.

Nutritional supplements, vitamins, and other products will not stop or decrease the rate of graying.

 

2) Hair thickness change.

Hair is made of many protein strands.

A single hair has a normal life between 2 and 7 years.

That hair then falls out and is replaced with a new hair.

How much hair you have on your body and head is also determined by your genes.

 

Nearly everyone has some hair loss with aging.

The rate of hair growth also slows.

Hair strands become smaller and have less pigment.

So the thick, coarse hair of a young adult eventually becomes thin, fine, light-colored hair.

Many hair follicles stop producing new hairs.

 

Men may start showing signs of baldness by the time they are 30 years old.

Many men are nearly bald by age 60.

A type of baldness related to the male hormone testosterone is called male-pattern baldness.

Hair loss may be at the temples or at the top of the head.

 

Women can develop a similar type of baldness as they age.

This is called female-pattern baldness.

Hair becomes less dense and the scalp may become visible.



   




As you age, your body and face also lose hair.

Women's remaining facial hair may get coarser, most often on the chin and around the lips.

Men may grow longer and coarser eyebrow, ear, and nose hair.

 

Contact your health care provider if you have sudden hair loss.

T0his can be a symptom of a health problem.

 

3) As we get old why do hairs grow down our nostrils (콧구멍)?

 

 Everybody gets more hairy as they get older and the reason for this is that the hair that you have on your body is actually sensitive to androgens (these are testosterone-like chemicals) and, as you go through life, your testosterone exposure of your hair follicles that grow hair increases and so, therefore, you are destined to become hairier as you get older because testosterone encourages those hair follicles to grow more hair.

    

And is this both men and women as well?

 

Yes it is, and specifically what testosterone or testosterone-like chemicals do is prolong what's called the anagen phase of hair.


The testosterone-like signals prolong the anagen phase, and the anagen phase dictates how long the hair's got to grow for, so therefore, you're going to get a longer hair if you make the anagen phase longer.

So you will have the same number of hairs on your body but you will make thicker, bigger, longer hairs in response to testosterone.


Women are vulnerable to this but they tend to be less vulnerable until the age of the menopause because at the age of the menopause, the level of estrogen in the bloodstream falls down and oestrogen reverses the effect on the hair follicle of testosterone - it stops the hair follicle responding to testosterone.

So when the estrogen level comes down a bit, the testosterone becomes and women do have testosterone - it becomes more dominant and, as a result, you do see more hairs growing. Nose, ears, other parts of your body as well.


여성은 폐경기까지는 에스트로겐의 영향으로 덜 취약하지만, 폐경기 이후에는 혈중 에스트로겐 수치가 떨어지고 테스토스테론의 모낭에 미치는 영향이 더 커지므로  그 결과 더 많은 모발이 성장하는 것을 볼 수 있습니다. , , 몸의 다른 부분의 털의 성장~

 

 

Why does this only apply to nose hair and ear hair and basically and hair where you don't want it?

Why does the hair on your head, particularly for men, get thinner with age then?

 

It does with women as well.

And there is a conversion process of turning the testosterone in the bloodstream - or in women, testosterone-like chemicals - get converted into dihydrotestosterone in the scalp and, for some reason, certain populations of the hair follicles on the scalp are sensitive and they die in response to the build-up of testosterone there or the exposure to testosterone.

The receptor that does this is on the X chromosome; men have only one X chromosome, but women have two. So if you have the variant of the gene that makes you susceptible to balding and you're a man, you have that and nothing else so you're destined to lose your hair in that male pattern. With women, because you have two chances because there are two X chromosomes, and you randomly use one or the other all over your body - then you've actually got more chance that you won't see a loss of hair, and, also, the testosterone is lower to start with in a woman.

   

안타깝게도 콧털,귓털 에만 적용이 되고 머리카락에는 이 이론이 적용이 안되네요.

특히 남성의 머리카락은 왜 나이가 들면서 더 얇아지는 이유는? (물론 여성도 마찬가지이지만)

 

혈류의 테스토스테론을 전환시키는 전환 과정이 있거나 여성의 테스토스테론과 같은 화학 물질이 두피의 디 하이드로 테스토스테론으로 전환되고, 또 특정인구집단에서는 두피의 모낭의 특정 개체군이 민감하여 죽게됩니다. (테스토스테론 축적 또는 테스토스테론 노출에 대한 반응)


이 일을 하는 수용체는 X 염색체에 있습니다.

남성은 한개의 X 염색체를 가지고 있지만 여성은  2개의  X염색체를 가지고있습니다.

따라서 만약 당신이 대머리에 쉽게 걸리게하는 유전자의 변종을 가지고 있는 남자라면 대머리가 될 수 밖에 없습니다. 

그러나 여성에게는 두 가지 기회가 있기 때문에 (두 개의 X 염색체가 있기 때문에 무작위로 두가지중 하나가 사용됩니다) 따라서 실제로 대머리가 될 가능성이 적어집니다.





Vocabulary

 

hair-raising

scary often in an exciting way

(ex)  “That ride on the rollercoaster was a hair-raising experience!”


** goose bumps

: reflex erection of hairs of the skin in response to cold or emotional stress or skin irritation 


hair follicle

the organ that produces a hair underneath the skin

(ex) “Scientists believe that stress can affect hair follicles.”

        A number of things can affect hair follicles actually age, disease, diet

 

baldness

having little or no hair on your head

(ex) “My grandfather is bald and he always wears a hat to cover his baldness.”



 

of a certain age

no longer young

(ex) “All the people at the party were of a certain age


 

 

facial

to do with the face

(ex) How many of them had facial hair, Tim?

       “None of the people at the party had facial hair.”

 

regenerate

to grow again

(ex) “The council has plans to regenerate this part of the city.”

       “Regeneration of parts of the city is in progress.” ‘regeneration’ is the noun.




 



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수아마미 2017-09-27 08:05 

감사합니다~

명절 잘 보내세요~~^^


보물연우 2017-09-27 20:34:59

수아마미님도 메리추석되세요^^

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