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*** 6분영어 (Pedestrianisation - is it good for cities and towns?)

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이번주 주제는 "pedestrianisation" 입니다.

우리나라 여러지역에도 보행자전용도로? 자동차제한구역? 등으로 불리는 곳들이 늘어나고 있어요.

아예 상시적으로 자동차등을 제한하는 구역도 있고, 행사같은것이 있을 때에만 한시적으로 운영하는곳도 있는것 같습니다.




 


Pedestrianisation a great necessity inurban designing to create a sustainable city in developing countries



 Introduction:


There are different meanings regardingpedestrianisation.

The simplest meaning of it is the removalof vehicular traffic from city streets.


For example in Hong Kong, pedestrianisationis defined by the transport department as “to restrict vehicle access to astreet or area for exclusive use of pedestrians”.


The importance of pedestrianisation indeveloping countries is increasing continuously because vehicular access areovercoming in cities more and more, in result the attendance of pedestrian inurban spaces will become less and less.


About one hundred years ago automobilesshould be adapted with urban spaces, but this process causes to destroy theattendance of pedestrians in city.


In recent century during the urbanizationrevolutions, the expectations of life, immigration and the population of citieswere increased very much and creating megapolis with a large population is oneof its results.


The concentration of a large population inone or several cities has negative results especially in developing countriessuch as Iran.


Heavy traffic, air pollution, noisepollution and unsuitable environment for living are some of its results. Cityof Tehran is an obvious example of a megapolis especially for elderly andchildren. Fortunately against the concentration of population in several citiesand creating megapolis, the system of intermediate cities is also exists in theworld that could be a solution for urbanism and settling the population.Instead of creating megapolis we can create “intermediate cities” that havelimited dimension and small area and at the same time it can be compatible andattractive for its residents according to services and facilities and situationof urbanization. With creating this kind of cities because of its limit areainstead of creating an unsafe, unpleasant and dangerous environment we would beenabled to respect pedestrian as a main user in urban web in urban designing.So we can create a city that has Pedestrianisation and in result it will has ahealthy and safe and compatible with human being characters. The increasing attendanceof automobiles causes creating an unsafe, unpleasant and dangerous place forresidents of that city. Air pollution and sound pollution and accidents all arethe unpleasant results of it. So many countries are thinking about somesolutions for it and Pedestrianisation is an efficient solution for thisproblem.


 

Objectives of Pedestrianisation


There are various reasons for havingPedestrianisation schemes.


First of all, pedestrianisation aims toimprove pedestrian’s safety and mobility.


Another important benefit is related to theenvironment.


These schemes can help to reduce both noiseand pollution by discouraging or restricting access of non-essential vehicles.


Furthermore it helps to promote walking asa transport mode by making the walking experience more enjoyable.


The last one means that pedestrianisationcreates a pleasant environment that people can involve in different social,cultural and tourism activities as well.


We will also notice that pedestrianisationcan improve the economical growing of that district. Generally we cancategorize the advantages of pedestrianisation in three groups


 

environmental impacts:


In terms of environmental objectives,pedestrianisation can help to alleviate and reduce air and noise pollution, asthere would be a reduction in the number of cars and reliance on motorvehicles.


Nowadays most of large cities are facedwith air and sound pollution that it will make them unpleasant and dangerousfor their residents.


Pedestrianisation can promote walking as atransportation mode without any need to oil, so we can save fuel as well.


Studies have shown that withpedestrianisation mode using public transportation such as bus and railtransportation have been increased.


 Usually when pedestrianisation is implemented,there can be more space on the streets not only for pedestrianisation but alsopresent opportunities for planning of additional planting areas and improvingstreet furniture and landscaping.


All these would help to beautify the localstreet and create a better environment.


 

economical impacts:


About economical impact we should say thatthere are a number of impacts with pedestrianisation.


First of all, for most large cities withheavy motor vehicle traffic, every year both the government and the privatesector have to incur large economical losses in term of air pollution ratedcosts of lost productivity and medical expenses.


With less motor vehicle traffic and lesspollution after pedestrianisation, there can be a reduction in costs incurred.


Physicians have issued various awarenessand manifest about air pollution and its danger and many expenses have beenspend to cure the diseases which are related to air pollution.


So the less air pollution causes the lessrelated medical expenses.


 Theother economical impact of pedestrianisation is on the retail income in thatdistrict.


The statistics say that after closingvehicle access in a district the rate of retail turnover usually have beenincreased.


In addition it has been seen that not onlythe retailers’ benefits but also the role of rental income and occupancy rateis increased.


 Themain reason is that pedestrian can shop and watch shop-windows easier andenjoys without any fear from vehicles.


 Insome places where have pedestrianisation scheme people will welcome coffeeshops and food retails so much.


The cities where there arepedestrianisation districts often have a pleasure place to attract tourists.


 

 Social impacts:


The implementation of pedestrianisationwould have a number of social impacts.


First of all it helps to promote walking asa transport mode.


People often do not walk when walkingitself doesn’t include a good experience with heavy motor vehicle traffic andcrowded narrow Nasim Iranmanesh, Pedestrianisation a great necessity in urbandesigning to create a sustainable city in developing countries, 44th ISOCARPCongress 2008 3 walkways.


Actually with today’s urban city lifepeople are walking less than before and rely on their private cars instead ofother public transport.


In result many people don’t have enoughphysical exercise.

Health specialists suggest that adults should take part inphysical activity for 30 minutes a day for at least 3 times a week.


This can be done by walking, as it is agood exercise.


Doing so results in a number of physical benefits,some examples are to prevent overweight, reduce the risks of heart diseases andstrengthen bones.


Pedestrianized streets in many cities alsoserved as cultural and entertainment plazas where people meet and greet notonly during ordinary days but also during holidays and festive seasons as well.


Free of vehicle Traffic Street, in manycases by landscaping, street furniture and sidewalks, help to create acomfortable environment for people to engage them in various social activities.


The other social impact ofpedestrianisation is that with segregation of people from vehicles, the safetyof pedestrian and transportation abilities can be improved.


Of course owners of private vehiclecomplain that their rights for entering pedestrianized districts haveforgotten.


Indeed in the pedestrianized district withmix functions, the accessibility of residents, merchants, other people to theirhomes or works were decreased and actually there is no justice about thesegroups.


 


As a conclusion from above we can concludethat pedestrianisation has positive economical and environmental efficiency.


However positive social effects are fewerthan others.


Because while there is some social effectsfor pedestrians, there are somedisadvantages for driver and people who live in that district or near thereas well.


 Buttotally pedestrianisation can be an efficient way to improve environmentalconditions in city.


 


 


We can have three kinds ofpedestrianisation:


 1-Full time pedestrian streets: In this designarrival of vehicles into street is fully forbidden and usually services are inthe back of street. In most cases only emergency service vehicles are allowedto enter.


 2-Part-time Pedestrian Streets: Part-time pedestrian streets are those where vehicularaccess is allowed only in specific periods. There is no on-street parkingspaces allowed but however loading bays are available.


3- Traffic Calming Streets: The third formof pedestrianisation is traffic calming streets. They serve to reduce the dominanceand speed of road vehicles. There are no restrictions to vehicle access, butfootpaths are widened and parking spaces are reduced. Various traffic calmingmeasures are used to slow down the speed of vehicles. They include speedtables, narrower traffic lanes and use of different road textures and colors toremind drivers that they are within traffic calming zones


출처 : Nasim Iranmanesh, Pedestrianisation a great necessity in urban designing to create a sustainable city in developing countries, 44th ISOCARP Congress 2008


동영상 참고자료


Vocabulary 

pedestrian
a person who is walking, usually in an area where there’s traffic

(ex) ‘Sorry – you can’t ride your bike here. This path is forpedestrians only.’

The adjective – ‘This book is full of very pedestrian ideas. I wouldn’t read itif I were you.’ 

 


tackle (something)
make an effort to deal with a difficult problem

(ex)The government isn’t really tackling the problem of airpollution. It needs to do much more.’


 

ban
officially say that something can’t be done

(ex) ‘The UK government will ban the sale of diesel and petrolcars from 2040.’

 

     


reroute
change the direction you’re travelling in

(ex)‘The council has rerouted all buses to avoid the town centre.’ 


  


congestion
too much traffic, making it difficult to move

(ex) ‘Road congestion always gets better in the summer when alot of car drivers are on holiday.’



pollution
damage to the environment caused by releasing waste substances such as carbondioxide into the air, or plastic into the sea

(ex) ‘The government isn’t really tackling the problem of airpollution. It needs to do much more.’






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